Vermont () is a state in the New England region of the Northeastern United States. It borders the U.S. states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east and New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Lake Champlain forms half of Vermont's western border with New York. The Green Mountains run north-south for the length of the state.
Vermont is the second smallest by population and the sixth smallest by area of the 50 U.S. states. The state capital is Montpelier, the least populous state capital in the United States. The most populous city, Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in a state. As of 2015, Vermont was the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. It was ranked as the safest state in the country in 2016.
For thousands of years indigenous peoples, including the Mohawk and the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki, occupied much of the territory that is now Vermont and was later claimed by France's colony of New France. France ceded the territory to Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War. For many years, the nearby colonies, especially the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed control of the area (then called the New Hampshire Grants). Settlers who held land titles granted by New York were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, which supported the many settlers whose claims were based on grants from New Hampshire.
Ultimately, those settlers prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic. Founded in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War, it lasted for 14 years. Aside from the original 13 states that were formerly colonies, Vermont is one of only four U.S. states that were previously sovereign states (along with California, Hawaii, and Texas). Vermont was also the first state to join the Union, as its 14th member state. While still an independent Republic, Vermont was the first of any future U.S. state to partially abolish slavery.